By Moshe Dann, Jerusalem Post—
Although Muslims claim the Golden/Mercy Gate as a Muslim shrine, the gate was built during the Second Temple period. Known as the Golden, Mercy and Shushan Gate, it is the most important gate of the Temple Mount because through it, the High Priest on Yom Kippur led the red heifer to be sacrificed on the Mount of Olives and the goat of Azazel was led into the wilderness of the Judean Desert.
The reason a bridge over the Kidron Valley to the Mount of Olives was necessary is because the Mount was (and still is) a Jewish cemetery, into which kohanim (Jewish priests) are forbidden by halacha (Jewish law). Ashes of the red heifer were part of a purification process required for Jews who ascended the Temple Mount.
According to Mishna Parah III, 6 and Middot I, 3:
“The elders of the Sanhedrin… and the Kohen Gadol via a bridge, arch upon arch… to the Mount of Olives.” This detailed ritual is read in many synagogues on Parshat Parah, a few weeks before Passover.
The ornate double arches on the outside of the gate indicate that it is from the Second Temple period; the surrounding wall has typical Herodian-style cut stones. The area outside the gate was explored by Charles Warren and other archaeologists in the mid-19th century – and several decades ago, Israel Antiquities Authority archeologists found the Herodian period foundations.
Turning historical and holy sites of other religions into mosques does not erase history; it only confirms Muslim bigotry and intolerance.
Interestingly, ancient maps of “Jerusalem at the time of the Second Temple” drawn by Christian European artists hundreds of years ago include a bridge on the eastern side of the Temple Mount – not because they could have seen one, or even the remains of one, but because they were familiar with the Mishna.
A large, modern rendition of one of these maps drawn by the 16th century Dutch humanist Christian van Adrichem includes the bridge; it can be seen in the dining room of the King David Hotel. The original map and many others are in the map collection at the Hebrew University’s Givat Ram campus.
Historical claims are not a game of how many places one can conquer, but about authenticity. Turning historical and holy sites of other religions into mosques does not erase history; it only confirms Muslim bigotry and intolerance.
The writer is a PhD historian, writer and journalist in Israel.